Kimmitt Genealogical Research

30 December 2009

Wordless Wednesday: Unknown Wedding Group Including Mr. & Mrs Barnes

My mother's collection of photographs contained this gem, but I do not know who the people are, with the exception of "Mr. & Mrs. Barnes." Can anyone help?

09 December 2009

Christmases Past - Trees I Have Loved

I've been using this photo as my profile picture on Facebook recently because it represents the magic I always felt as a child at Christmas. This was taken in 1959 when I was four. It was after Christmas because the gifts had been opened. It is the only photo I have of myself at Christmas, ever. In reality I think the occasion was actually the annual screening of The Wizard of Oz on TV. They always showed it on the Sunday night between Christmas and New Year's.

I used to get revved up in a complete frenzy of anticipated delight. It was the only children's movie I had ever seen and I loved, loved, loved it, even though the Wicked Witch of the West scared the wind out of me. I don't think I dared uncover my eyes until I was about eight or nine years old! Anyway, you can see the big upholstered chair near the fireplace. My father sat in that religiously, but abandoned it for the Wizard of Oz. Part of the evening's thrill was that I got to sit in Daddy's chair. We'd always have a big fire in the fireplace on Sundays, and that night we'd re-light it for the show. They probably took this photo of me because I was already psyched for it to start. This particular night, my mother stoked a bunch of logs and got a rip-roaring fire going. I don't know what happened to the fireplace screen, but at some point, a tiny ember made its way onto the big chair so that when I climbed into it, I got a stinging pain in my bum!  I must have screamed and cried, but all I remember is being highly insulted that the chair had bitten me, and then laughing with teary relief when I found out what it was and put my finger through the hole it left. My poor parents.

At the moment the photo was taken, I was gazing upon the tree with loving wonder. You have these childhood memories of big glorious trees with bright lights, shiny ornaments sparkling and glistening. Not quite what the photo reveals. Looking back on it now, we had some pretty pathetic trees. I just didn't realize it. My frugal father was not into wasting money on a tree when we could just go out in the woods and get our own. Problem was, living on the South Shore of Massachusetts meant there was not an abundance of what we think of as Christmas trees. Not quite the scrub pines of Cape Cod, but no great majestic evergreens of Northern New England or Canada, where most of us now get our Christmas trees imported from.

Instead, what we ended up with was a spindley white pine that could barely hold ornaments. I didn't even notice when I was little, but probably about the same time I figured out the Santa deception, when I looked to the trappings to produce the magic for me instead of Santa, the white pines didn't cut it. Ever stuck in the middle, my mother would buy a tree and tell my father she had paid only a quarter of the price she had actually paid, just so I could have a wondrous tree to behold. They got better and better in reality over the years, but the ones I saw in my early childhood can never ever be topped, except by an angel!

01 December 2009

Tombstone Tuesday - One Litchfield Couple

Mt. Hope Cemetery, in the West End of Scituate, Massachusetts, is my favorite cemetery, and someday I hope to have my ashes buried there, beneath the soft pines. I have lots of ancestors and other relatives buried there, from parents and brother to GGGG grandparents, two of whom I discuss here. I just love how by researching a little bit a few scant letters carved into a piece of stone two hundred years ago can open up a window into your own past. My GGGG grandparents, James and Elizabeth (Litchfield) Litchfield are buried in the oldest part of the cemetery, towards the back.

In memory of
Mr. James Litchfield,
who died
Oct. 10, 1786:
aged 48 years.

In memory of
Mrs. Elizabeth.
wife of
Mr. James Litchfield:
who died
Dec. 29, 1835:
aged 91 years.

About the Stones
Despite the 49 years difference in their ages at death, these stones appear to have been carved by the same carver. They are the same size and have the exact same willow and urn decoration at the top of the stone, s well as exact side borders. And this stone carver was punctuation-happy! Not only is he rather free with commas, but he loved him a good colon! He uses capitals and italics in exactly the same way, so we are sure it's the same fellow.

About the Urn and Willow
This is motif that was most commonly depicted in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when classicism was at it's height, and death was thought of in a more secular way, as opposed to the old deaths heads and cherubs used earlier. The willow and urn was popular for quite a long period, so precise dating by gravestone symbols is not possible. It is unlikely that James' gravestone was erected at the time of his death, though, because that was quite early for the urn and willow, even in Boston, and Scituate is a good 30 miles away. It took some time for the designs to spread out into surrounding communities. It is more likely that at Elizabeth's death, someone had both stones carved and erected.

About the Litchfields
There were billions of them, mostly congregated in the area near this cemetery. I haven't even begun to delve deeply into mine, but they are the ones who cause the most pedigree collapse in my tree. Elizabeth, wife of James Litchfield, was also a Litchfield: they were second cousins. Then, their daughter Hannah Litchfield, married Capt. Daniel Litchfield in 1806 and here we have the explanation of any odd traits in our family tree! We have the Litchfield hump, the Litchfield twitch, the Litchfield flinch... just kidding! The Litchfield wandering eye, the Litchfield stutter...

My aunt, Abbie Herberta (Barnes) Thompson, recently loaned me a most precious book. She had it bound herself, in 1981, from five incredibly detailed, accurate and useful pamphlets on the Litchfields written by Wilford Jacob Litchfield from 1901-1906. I promised my poor Auntie that I would index this tome and got started on it before going for certification, then I put it aside, but I must take it up again, because it's an incredible volume. Anyway, in it can be found transcriptions of all sorts of supporting documentation such as wills, deeds, warnings out, vital records, correspondence, diaries and more! It's a treasure trove. I just want to give a few tidbits here about my gggg grandparents.

About Joseph

He was born in Scituate 10 February 1738. He was sometimes called Joseph Brine or Joseph Jr. to distinguish him from his cousin Joseph, born 1734. The brine part I'm not sure about, but suspect either he spent time at sea or drank too much! . Not a lot is known about his first wife, Anna Gordon who he married in 1760. They probably had two daughters, Susanna and Anna, but the author had only just learned of them, and I'd like to study that a bit.

James served in the Revolution and on town government (Highway Surveyor 1771, Hog Reeve 1773 and 1776) and in the Litchfield pamplets [p. 376] is described by a descendant as being: "a man of temperate and industrious habits, of mild and retiring disposition, but much beloved. He was a farmer and a carpenter... It appears that he did not take an active part in local affairs, the care of a large family occupying his attention and strength until his untimely death." Regarding his death, the pamplet also states on p. 377, "It was upon this property that James was building a new house when overtaken by his fatal sickness." Oh, sickness? Really? Because later we find this tidbit of a footnote: "It is a common saying that his early death was caused by an illness resulting from an injury to his head made by his brother, Lothrop Litchfield, while the latter was in an intoxicated condition. James was engaged in building his new house at the time of the alleged assault." I love this author because he clearly tells us it is just gossip, but hmmmmmmm. Maybe it should have been Lothrop Brine!

Finally, we find that "At his grave there was placed in 1897, through the efforts of a great-grandaughter, Mrs. Mandana (Clapp) Morris of North Scituate, a bronze marker of the Sons of the American Revolution. All descendants of James Litchfield are entitled to join a society like the S.A.R." Mandana happened to live next door to my GG grandparents, Israel Merritt Barnes and his wife (Olive Litchfield) Barnes, who named one of their daughters Mandana after their neighbor and Olive's cousin.

About Elizabeth
Elizabeth was James' second wife. Elizabeth was baptized at Scituate on 4 November 1744, and she and James were married on 7 January 1770. On page 380 we read: "She is described by her grand-daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth Litchfield (Merritt) Merritt (born 1812, died in 1905), as a woman of sedateness and hospitality, and very highly patriotic. When the tea was thrown overboard in Boston harbor, it is said that Mrs. Litchfield threw her tea-pot against a stone-wall, breaking it, thus manifesting her displeasure at the levying of the hated tea-tax. After the death of her husband, leaving a large family and unfinished home on her hands, she had a part of the structure made habitable and there she brought up her family in an industrious and frugal manner. Lawrence, her eldest son, lived in the same house, and cared for his mother in her declining days. It is said that she was a remarkable woman for her time."

Of course this warrants much more research, but I think I'd need a lifetime to corroborate everything in the Litchfield pamplets. You can find it digitized now, at

As a matter of amusement, look at this, available only in India! And you get a 61 Rupee discount:

The Litchfield Family In America

 (Paperback - Aug 2008)


Write a Review
List Price:
Rs 1520
Our Price:
Rs. 1459
Rs. 61
4%off Free Shipping

Imported Edition.Order now and get it in 14-21 business days. See Details

All India - Free Shipping. See Details
Ships to India only.

Buy online using:
- Credit Card (VISA & MasterCard)
- Debit Card or Internet Banking Account (all major Indian Banks accepted)
- Cheque, Demand Draft or Money Order. See Details

Publisher: Converpage

25 November 2009

Wordless Wednesday, Library of Congress American Memory Collection

I love the Library of Congress American Memory Collection ( Here are a couple of knitting photos I downloaded years ago.

[Women knitting, as they are sitting outdoors on wooden chairs]

From "Photographs from the Chicago Daily News, 1902-1933"


Group portrait of three women knitting as they are sitting outdoors on wooden chairs in Chicago, Illinois.

This photonegative taken by a Chicago Daily News photographer may have been published in the newspaper.

Cite as: DN-0068504, Chicago Daily News negatives collection, Chicago History Museum.

Tulalip woman named Magdeline Whea-kadim knitting, Tulalip Indian Reservation, 

Washington, 1906

From "American Indians of the Pacific Northwest"


United States--Washington (State)--Burton


Older woman sits on woven rug on grass knitting with 4 needles; several balls of yarn sit in front of her. She wears a scarf wrapped headband-style around her forehead.
Note from unidentified source: Chief William Shelton's mother, Magdaline Whea-kadim, Tulalip Washington, 1906
photographer's reference number: [2]

24 November 2009

Korean War Honor Roll, Shrewsbury, MA

The last list of soldiers listed in the Book of Remembrance held by the First Congregational Church in Shrewsbury is from the Korean War.


Lloyd Hill*
Thomas H. Ross
Gilbert Harrington
Robert Olson
Archie Horton
Bradford Francis
David Wright
Alan Daniels
Wayne Daniels
Robert Schultz
Paul Clark
Thornton Farnsworth
Lawrence Bartlett
Richard B. Proctor
Jean Boodell
Robert Goodell
William Webb
Russell Webb
John B. Sequin
Joseph S. Fleming
Russell Eaton
Richard Dean
Richard Green
Richard Williams

Compare the church's "Honor Roll" to the Central Massachusetts Korean War Veterans Memorial Honor Roll. Online at there is a rather dated description of the memorial. Seems it was a long time in the making. According to the website, there are only two Shrewsbury names on it:
     Dana A. Curtis, USA and
     Lloyd E. Hill, USMC

Note that only Lloyd Hill is listed in the FCC book. Maybe Dana A. Curtis was not a church member.   A 21 October 2007 article in the Worcester Telegram describes the dedication of the memorial, saying it had taken many years and $1.8 million to complete.

Photo courtesy of the Telegram.

World War II Honor Roll, Shrewsbury, MA

More from the Book of Remembrance at the First Congregational Church in Shrewsbury.

Albert H. Allard
Abbott P. Allen
Howard C. Allen
Roger E. Allen
Gordon R. Allen
Robert W. Anderson
Rexford H. Avery
Winthrop B. Avery
Wallace N. Bailey
David S. Bath
James S. P. Beck
John Berg
Robert E. Bergstrom
George D. Blakeslee
William H. Boyce, Jr.
George A. Brigham
Thomas R. Brooks
Crawford A. Burgess
R. Cutler Burgess
Herbert J. Butler
Walker F. Caniff
Alfred G. Carr
William G.Carruth
Edwin H. Casten
Lois I. Chamberlin
Norman K. Channin
Carl Chapman
Clifford A. Coe
Norman E. Cortis
Ethel Costel
Paul Cotting
Alvah M. Crooker
Bruce E. Dean
Randall L.. Dean
I. James Donahue, Jr.
G. Frank Drinkwine
Randall V. Dufresne
Roger J. Dufresne
Alan E. Duke*
James E. Duke
John E. Dunn
Arthur G. Empie
Leslie C. Empie
Douglas S. Fairbanks
Harold L. Farnsworth
Robert W. Farnsworth
Richard D. Fipphen*
Edward H. Fletcher
Clayton M. Fowler
Harvey C. Friars
Donald T. Gelley
Richard C. Gelley
E. Kendall Gleason
Bernard E. Green
Frances Green
Harold E. Green
James A. Green
J. Alfred Grocut, Jr.
Henry E. Gunnerson, Jr.
Norman C. Gunnerson
Raymond A. Gunnerson
John J. Hadley
A. Frank Hale, Jr.
Richard H. Ham
Henry J. Harlow
Everett W. harrington
Frederick S. Haskell
harlan P. Herbert
Ruth E. Hirchert
Edward H. Holland
Elwood V. Horne
Sidney E. Horton, Jr.
Clayton R. Huckins
Gordon E. Huckins
Lyman E. Huckins
Thomas Hunter
Russell D. Ireland
John Jacobs
Richard Jackson
Carl A. Jefts, Jr.
Howard T. Jensen
J. Edward Jensen
Franklin C. Judson
Reginald A. Judson
Wilbert E. Keddie
Theodore O. Kuhl
Paul E. Langhill
Robert T. Leach
Charles B. Lewis
John S. Loring
Laurence Lougee
Ralph F. Lumb
Rodney E. Marston
James M. Martin
Chester W. Maynard, Jr.
Lora H. MacDonald
Horace D. McCowan, Jr.
Vernon D. McVickar
Malcolm C. Merrill
Robert L. Miller
Forrest C. Miner
Paul E. Mitchell
Richard F. Nash
Jay Raymond Needham
Alan C. Morris
David S. O’Brien
George H. O’Brien
W. Stewart Paul
Helene H. aulsen
Charles Pellcok
Walter R. Porter
O. Stanley Porter, Jr.
Douglas W. Pow
Marson E. Pratt
Robert S. Pride
Arthur F. Raymond
Rockwood F. Reed, Jr.
Donald F. Ricker
Everett H. Robie
Earl F. Rodgers
John S. Rose, Jr.
Chauncey L. Russell
Robert W. Russell
Robert Sanborn
Roger Sanborn
George Schunder
Donald Sieurin
Randolph C. Smith
George T. Sophos
Carletan W. Sprague
Duane O. Sprague, Jr.
Donald W. Sweet
Wilbert E. Taylor
Howard C. Towne
Belton S. Wall
Bruce B. Ward
Donald B. Ward
Paul P. Warren
Irving E. Washburn
Ervin E. Weagle
Alice E. Williams Weatherly
David H. Webb
Russell D. Webb
William H. Webb
Frederick W.White’Howard B. White
Henry Whittemore
Robert H. Whittemore*
James L. Wood
Ralph C. Wood
William W. Wood
Edward Bartlett
Stanley Bartlett

22 November 2009

Ruth Sieurin, WWI Army Nurse Corps Veteran

I went in pursuit of an answer as to why Ruth Sieurin was listed as a World War I veteran in the records of the First Congregational Church in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Simple answer is that she was a nurse. I found an informative listing on the Arlington National Cemetery Website, under an entry for her husband, Willard Stewart Paul, a US Army Lieutenant General ( : 21 November 2009).

The webmaster Michael Robert Patterson does not cite any sources (except for the gravestone photos), but he seems to have given careful consideration to ascertaining his facts. Willard S. Paul married Ruth M. Sieurin 14 April 1919. Ruth passed away 4 February 1953, and Willard married 2nd Luella Musselman. Willard passed away 21 March 1966. Luella passed away in 1978. Though she is not shown on the gravestone, Patterson says that Luella is also buried there.

DATE OF BIRTH: 02/28/1894
DATE OF DEATH: 03/21/1966

DATE OF BIRTH: 03/01/1893
DATE OF DEATH: 02/04/1953

[Gravestone photo courtesy of Russell C. Jacobs, January 2006]

21 November 2009

World War I Honor Roll, Shrewsbury, MA

The First Congregational Church in Shrewsbury has a "Book of Remembrance." It is a large volume that was created in 1956 and presented to the church by Elsie G. Cook. The occasion for this was a large building project, including the erection of a three-story addition which added a chapel, parlor, kitchen, offices and classrooms. The minister at that time was Rev. Robert Merrill Bartlett, D. D. Minister. Having just stumbled upon a transcription it that I did in 2004, I realized it's useless just sitting in my computer, hence my post. Mostly it's lists: of renovations to the church, of ministers, of legacies, of veterans of three wars, and of gifts, ranging from early gifts of silver up to gifts given in 1982.

One list is of soldiers who served in World War I from Shrewsbury. Though it is not an original source it is useful to use for comparison.  Since the Shrewsbury World War I memorial is now practically crumbling, the VFW and the Town have agreed to rebuild it, and are about to start solliciting donations. The memorial lists the eight men who died, whereas these are probably either all Shrewsbury men, or church members who served.  If I get a break with client work, I'll look into this, especially the one woman mentioned, Ruth Sieurin.

Honor Roll – World War I
  • Edward S. Ross
  • Raymond Stone*
  • W. Steward Paul
  • Henry O. Eaton
  • R. Lisle Marston
  • Robert E. Marston
  • Oke Sieurin
  • Albert J. Daniels
  • Harold Daniels
  • Herbert H. Gates
  • Herbert M. Bartlett
  • Carl F. Vaughan
  • James Schouler
  • Malcolm C. Midgley
  • Harry E. Gray
  • Harlow A. Shepard
  • Everett E. Winch
  • Irving E. Clapp
  • John A. Boyce
  • Alf E. Sieurin
  • Ward G. Keegan
  • Bernard N. Knowlton
  • Bruno P. Haas
  • Wells E. Daniels
  • Bryon Stone*
  • William L. Keddie
  • Everett C. Woodard
  • Ralph E. Christie
  • Harris G. Field
  • Rockwood F. Reed
  • Ralph B. McKenzie
  • Ruth Sieurin
  • Ernest Bisson
  • Philip H. Prouty
  • Frederick L. Stone
  • Jay R. A. Morton
  • Clarence A. Crooker
  • Clarence E. Dunn
  • John MacDuff
  • Charles F. Abbott
  • Whitney Hastings
  • F. Harold Holland
  • Henry Vaughan
  • Carlton R. Dean
  • Harold W. Green
Rest in Peace, Soldiers.

20 November 2009

Honor Bestowed

Sound the trumpets!! I have just received the Kreativ Blogger Award from Family Curator, aka Denise Levenick, from In keeping with the mutual support bloggers always give one another, it is a means of spreading the word about interesting blogs. In that vein, I'm supposed to share seven (obscure) things about myself and then recommend seven of my favorite blogs.

Seven things about me that you may not know:

1) I lived in Rome, Italy for three and a half years and spoke fluent Italian even though I was a French major and had not studied Italian.

2) In college I almost majored in music (flute). Instead I joined the UMass Marching Band and the Umass Chorale.

3) My grandfather was born in 1867! If he had lived, he would have been 88 when I was born.

4) I spent three weeks in India in the early 1980s, traveling around visiting sites like the Taj Mahal on my own.

5) In Rome I worked in an international law firm that did research for United Nations Working Groups.

6) I came very close to death after my third son was born at 11 pounds, 2 oz on New Year's Day.

7) I've spent my life battling with my weight––sadly, to no avail. And I just HATE being large.

Seven blogs I love. I don't follow too many because I don't have the time to read them, but I love stumbling upon a fine post. I therefore award the Kreativ Blogger Award to (drum roll):

1) Newly discovered Family Curator who has an intelligent and well organized blog that is so informative and apparently just what I need! I love the Blogger's Almanac with writing prompts. Visit

2) has a beautiful and interesting blog that is a pleasure to peruse. Visit

3) Nationally-known professional genealogist Paul Stuart-Warren is a dear person as well as an amazing genealogist. I love her blog, too. Paula's Genealogical Eclectica can be found at

4) We have a natural teacher in Ol' Myrt who is passionate about passing on her tremendous knowledge to other genealogists. I remember reading her words of wisdom in the very early days of the internet, when it seemed like nobody was out there. I love that she's still there, still helping and teaching. Check out her blog at

5) Chris Dunham, as the Genealogue offers tantalizing, sometimes quirky historical tidbits at

6) Geneabloggers taught and keeps me in the know about what bloggers actually do. Since I'm so new to this it really helps me be creative and not stagnate in the same old ideas. There are calendars, prompts, how-tos, technical assistance, and just about anything I need. The gentle handholding and guidance are much appreciated. Visit

7) Miriam Robbins Midkiff has a fine blog at AnceStories: The Stories of My Ancestors at I love it!

Keep up the great work, fellow bloggers. I'm looking forward to exploring more and more blogs every day.

18 November 2009

A Beauty, In-Deed!

Plymouth County, Massachusetts, original quitclaim deed, Thomas Stetson, Sary Stetson, John Peirce,  Patience Peirce, John Booth,  Mary Booth, Jonathan Dodson, Eunice Dodson, Rodulphus Ellmes and Bethiah Ellmes to Nathaniel Tilden, 5 January 1696/7; digital image, Ebay ( : 2 February 2009)

I found this beautiful quitclaim deed on EBay earlier this year. Despite bidding what felt like an extravagant amount of money, I lost it in the last seconds of the auction. Some of the signers were my ancestors, so I was sad not to win, but at least I have the image. First I'll transcribe, then I'll talk a bit about it. I'm being very brave doing this, because the hidden meanings in early legal documents scare me. Things can seem obvious but these old transactions have a plethora of implications that I do not always catch. I suspect I'm not alone in that, still it makes me reluctant to look at this publicly! I'm not able to print superscript in this blog's text editor, so I will write out the words I believe they are intended to represent. There was no source given. I suppose I'll find it in the deed books, but here it is in raw format.
Know all men by these presents that we Thomas Stetson and
[S]ary Stetson John perce and patience perce John booth
and Mary Booth : Jonathan Dodson Eunice Dodson Rodulf
is Elms and Bethiah Elms Have Remised, Released and forever
quitt Claimed and by these presents do for us our hairs Exsecutors
and administrators and Jointly and severaly for every of us our
hairs Exsecutors & administratours do fully freely and forever also
[lately] quitt Claime unto Nathaniel Tilden of Sittuate in the County
of plymouth in New England Exsecutor to the Last will and Testament
of our Honored Mother Marah Dodson of Sittuate aforesaid do
ceased him his hairs and assigns of and from all Leggacies Gifts bequests
som and soms of mony and demands whatsoever bequethed and giv
en unto us the said Thomas and Sary Stetson John perce and patience
perce John booth and Mary booth Jonathan dodson Eunice dodson
Rodulfis Elms and bethiah Elms in and by the Last will and testament
of our honored Mother Mary dodson aforesd Deceased and of and
from all manour of actions and Suts Cause or Causes of [actions] or Suts Som and
Soms of mony debts dutys Recknings accounts and demands whatsoever which
against the sd Nathaniel Tillden we Ever had Now have or which nead our hairs
Exsecutors or administratours shall or may have Claime Challenge or Demand
for or by reason of any mater Caus or thing from the beginning of the world unto
the day of the date of thes presents in wittnes whare of we have here unto
sett our hands and Seals this fift day of January one thousand Six hundred
Ninety Six : or seven 1696/7 Jonathan Dodson (signature and seal)
Signed Sealed and delivered John Peirce (signature and seal)
in presents of Wittnesses John booth (signature and seal)
"the mark of Abraham Barden" Rodulphus Ellmes (signature and seal)
Thomas Turner (signature)
witnes "the mark eunice (signature) dodson" (seal)
Benjamin Stetson (signature)
Bethia Stetson (signature) Thomas Stetson (signature and seal)
Before examining this deed closely, I had a look at the Vital Records of Scituate, Massachusetts to 1850, and Deane's History of Scituate to get acclimated with the family. Deane isn't always accurate, but used in conjunction with the VRs provides a good springboard. Of course, this information would need to be verified in original sources before determining anything conclusive, but for our purposes, they provide enough background information.

Anthony Dodson and Mary Williams were married 12 Nov 1651 in Scituate, Plymouth Colony. They had eight children. One, Gershom, died in Rehoboth during King Phillip's War. There remained six daughters and one son.

Sarah m. Thomas Stetson 1671
Margaret m. Nathaniel Tilden 1693
Mary m. John Booth jr. 12 Dec 1687
Patience m. John Peirce 12 Dec. 1683
Bethia m. Rodolphus Ellmes 20 Feb 1695/6
Eunice m. Simon Delis 1 Jan 1717

A quitclaim is executed to relinquish any right of ownership, whether actual or only implied, meaning the grantor may or may not have had title to begin with. People had a variety of reasons for executing quitclaims, but I think it was mostly a safety measure, a way to ensure that a title was clear, just in case...

When Mary Dodson died (sometime before 5 January 1696/7), she left a will. In this quitclaim, six of Mary's children are handing over their claim to any inheritance to the seventh child. Mary's one son, Jonathan, signed in his own right, as would be expected. The only unmarried daughter, Eunice, did the same. But for the rest of Mary's children, all married daughters, the laws of coverture govern how the ownership is determined. Once they married, they gave up their right of ownership to their husbands. For this reason we do not see their names at all, even though they were the main characters.

So why are Nathaniel and his wife (Margaret) the lucky recipients? I just don't know! This would require some study and I've already spent a load of time just getting this far. I suspect that there are probably other deeds conveying property for payment, and that this is just a clearing of title. Feel free to chime in, if you know, and I'm being stupid, which, sadly, is entirely possible.

15 November 2009

When Sparks Flew

Hunt-Spiller Manufacturing Corporation Magazine Advertisement ca 1940 

My grandfather, William Otis Humphrey Barnes, died before I was born. He left behind my grandmother Vernetta, who I adored, even though most of our interaction consisted of her shushing me so she could chat with my mother! She won me over entirely by playing "Go Fish" with me every Sunday. I was fascinated by that dead animal fur thing she wore on her coat collar and have fond memories of going to sleep over at her house a few times. She died when I was only seven, so I didn't really know her well, just loved her like only a child can.

Right before I got married in 1988, I found a couple of letters that WOHB had written to Vernetta when they were still youngish. I was intrigued at the tone of his letters, and loved how he called her "Babe." Bill worked as an engineer, traveling around Eastern Massachusetts on various jobs. I thought this was a great description of what an electrical engineer did in 1919. He was obviously very homesick! Later he got a job with Hunt-Spiller Electronics in South Boston, an advertisement for which is shown above.


Young Men’s Christian Association
Brockton, Mass.
Public Correspondence Table

15 Jul 1919
My Dear Babe,
I rec’d your letter
to-night. It made me feel very
good to get it. You are a good girl
to write so soon and so good a letter.
It was really two in one, wasn’t
it dear? I’ll tell you something
about my work. I get up a
6., go down the street and eat-
breakfast and take the G.41 train
from Brocton. To-night I
got a train back[interlined] that gets to Brockton
at 6.40, so I had my supper
and was cleaned up just before
I talked with you. Yesterday
I spent most all day walking
around with the chief engineer.
He was showing me all the

[page two]
motors, generators and all the
electrical equipment and giving
me what information he could.

He seemd to be allright.
To-day I have bee connecting
up 6 motors, that is I have
been working on them but will
not have them all ready to run
for a couple of days. Besides that
I have worked on the electric
wiring on a gasoline engine
and put 4 new brushes in one of
the big motors. Well, I guess
that’s enough about my work.
I am going to write to Mr.
Maxwell just as soon as I
can decide just what I want
to tell him. I hope that

[page three]
you will go to the movies
to-night, and have a good time.
I wish that I could go with
you. Well, you best little Wife,
be a good girl and take good care
of my three little girls.

Tell Priscilla and Louise that
their daddy loves them and
is sorry that he can’t be with
them. Good-night Babe darling,
write soon and often.

Lots of love to my three wonderfull girls.

Daddy Bill

Briefest of Histories of Genealogy

I recently agreed to write a column for an online newspaper that centers around my town. Here is my first column.

Genealogy, or the study of our ancestors, is the fastest growing hobby in the United States today. Let's look at the history of genealogy as it moved from an obscure form of record keeping into an expanding field of professional study. 

Originally, genealogy served as a means to validate someone’s ancestry, whether to prove religious qualification, as in the Biblical genealogies, or to prove the right to inherit land and title, as in heraldic genealogies. For millennia it changed very little, remaining a dry list of begats guaranteed to put readers to sleep. You may be familiar with Bible passages like this one: “Matthew 1:3 And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram…” Riveting stuff!

Well if that’s all there is to genealogy, why is it the fastest growing hobby in America? Documenting your family history is addictive detective work! And it’s all about you. It’s like assembling a jigsaw puzzle that keeps pulling you in with its detail and interestingly shaped pieces: each one containing a tiny clue as to who you are. And just so you never get bored, its edges are unfinished, always inviting further exploration in an infinite variety of directions.

You start with a modest goal, perhaps “Who were my four grandparents?” When you solve that, you then have clues about your eight great-grandparents, and your family tree has just doubled! The modern genealogist is not content with simply listing begats, however. Today we are family historians, gradually unfolding the mysteries of who our ancestors were, why (if) they came to America and what they did when they got here. We flesh out the birth, marriage and death information with bibliographical information that brings them alive.

Genealogy was wildly popular in the nineteenth century. It was the tool by which potential members proved their worthiness to join elite lineage societies like the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) or the Mayflower Society. In order to join, you had to prove descent from a Revolutionary War patriot (DAR), or a passenger on the first Mayflower voyage. Membership was a privilege determined by birth and therefore off limits to recent immigrants, African-Americans and Native Americans. It was a hobby mainly of upper-class white Protestant women who seemed to specialize in finding ancestors with status. There was no mention of black sheep, skeletons or scoundrels of any kind. Because of this, I believe, genealogy experienced a gradual decline in popularity throughout most of the twentieth century. We all know we have unsavory characters in our family and people automaticaly discounted themselves from the hunt because they felt unqualified in some way.

In the 1920s there was an upsurge in scholarly approach to genealogy. Research and reporting standards were established which helped all genealogists be more accurate and productive. Still, the vast majority of those doing family history research continued to gather secondary information and write about it selectively, without citing their sources or using proper analytical techniques. But the professionals were starting to teach the rest how beneficial proper techniques can be. By 1964, the Board for Certification of Genealogists ® was founded, thus finally establishing genealogy as a professional field of study.

Alex Haley’s miniseries Roots, the story of an African man captured and brought to America as a slave, was broadcast in 1977. It told the story of the immigrant’s descendants and in so doing validated the worthiness of everyone’s genealogy. Some began to realize that they had no sense of history in their own families which had been separated by war, job-opportunities and divorce. Many were in the dark about their own ancestry.

Yet even with the wild popularity of Roots and a growing tendency to honor America’s multiple ethnicities, genealogy was still a rather neglected pastime. Those who did take it up were known to bore the whiskers off anyone silly enough to enquire as to how they were. Despite the influence of professionals, the final product of most genealogists was only a little more detailed than the biblical begats. Genealogists were still perceived as dotty and eccentric name collectors who would boast of having “finished the family genealogy.” Too many still relied heavily upon previously published genealogies, and they didn’t care much about citing the sources of their information.

In the days before the internet, research was agonizingly slow. Work was done in libraries, courthouses, archives or by mail, and proceeded one step at a time, sometimes with weeks between steps. It was a hobby for most and a profession for very few: all were extremely patient.

In the mid-1990s the internet came along to magnify genealogical knowledge, for better or for worse. Message Boards like Rootsweb sprung up, allowing individuals to compare notes about their surnames of interest or localities, etc. was a leader in digitizing and indexing original sources and providing them for a fee. Before we had time to wish for it, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints put online some of its holdings, including the International Genealogical Index. Many archives realized that they could provide widespread access to their holdings without the wear and tear of individual researchers actually touching the documents, so universities and libraries began to digitize their holdings. And even some governmental agencies began to do the same with vital records. Like kids in a candy store, genealogists everywhere went crazy.

The internet catapulted people into genealogy faster than anyone could believe. All it really takes is one look at your great-grandmother in the 1880 census to get you hooked. You can see who she’s living with, how many children she has with her, (maybe some by a different husband), who her neighbors were, where her parents were born and all kinds of things you thought you might never know. Instant gratification! You get your information, but then are left with more questions, so the search continues. Endlessly addictive!

Between changes in society and the availability of information on the internet, the field of genealogy has changed dramatically in the past fifty years. The stigma attached to genealogy was reduced as the racism inherent in the lineage societies dissipated. The DAR now not only welcomes but celebrates African-American and Native American applicants. The Mayflower Society works with Native American groups to celebrate their heritage as well. Professional organizations exist to help beginners learn how to properly record their own family histories so that they can enjoy the full story of their own varied ancestry. With the proliferation of information on the web came also a multiplying of faulty data, thus the need for professional guidance became even more important. Conferences and institutes are held all over the United States where you can learn about Polish, Irish, Italian, Mennonite, French-Canadian, Cherokee, Freewill Baptist or just about any group you can think of. DNA testing can confirm some relationships, though not, obvously, provide a thorough genealogy. In addition, it can show you the trails your ancient ancestors took when migrating to Europe or wherever they ended up.

Today, the skillful genealogist uses professional methodology. We continually educate ourselves to stay current not only with record sources, but with methodology. We consult a wide variety of sources, both in repositories and online, to flesh out the lives of our ancestors. Every single item of information is attributed, via footnote, to a source which is then evaluated as to relevency. We acknowledge when there is not enough evidence or there is conflicting evidence. When there is no direct evidence, we write a proof argument using indirect evidence. Accreditation or certification are two of the ways in which professionals can be credentialed, and there the opportunities for learning continue to grow exponentially. Not everyone needs to be a professional, but if you follow professional methods you will find that your research is much more fruitful and will lead to discovery of more detail than you dreamed possible.

21 October 2009

Wordless Wednesday - Favorite Barnes Family Photo

Dedicated to my new-found second cousin Russell Barnes

W. F. Bates, North Scituate, Mass., photographer, “Three Generations of Barnes' 1890,” photograph, inscribed in pen on the back: “Left to right standing- grandma Bethia (Clapp) Barnes b. 1861; grandpa Israel M. Barnes b. 1861; Tom Humphrey (Priscilla's son); Andrew, coachman; Margaret, maid; Annie Humphrey (Tom's daughter), Aunt Abbie Humphrey (Frank's wife) Abbie Hobart; Frank Humphrey - fire chief in Newton. sitting left to right -- Nurse holding Joseph Barnes b. 1890; Olive Barnes b. 1888; William Barnes b. 1886; Israel M. Barnes 3rd b. 1885; Priscilla (Barnes) Humphrey b. 1811 sister to gr. grandsire b. 1821 Israel M. Barnes who is sitting next to her. This picture was taken in summer of 1890. Tom & Frank - gr aunt Priscilla's sons-- V.G.B. [Vernetta Gertrude Barnes] = 1931”; Barnes Family Papers.

The inscription on the back of the photo was probably written by my grandmother, Vernetta Gertrude (Jones) Barnes, who eventually married William Barnes, the child with his head tilted and longish hair.

15 October 2009

Growing Up in a Massachusetts Mill Town

My grandmother Vernetta "Vernie" Gertrude (Jones) Barnes was born in Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts in 1892. Her parents were newly-arrived immigrants, having come down from New Brunswick, like countless other immigrants, in search of jobs, better living conditions, and prospects for their children’s futures. When they arrived, Lawrence was a booming textile center, a leading producer of woolens. Her father, Jared, was a 30-year old farmer, strong and accustomed to hard work, which he readily found upon his arrival. Lawrence mills were reaching their pinnacle of production, and treatment of the mostly foreign-born workers became ever-more unacceptable, as companies continually pushed their employees for higher output.

The woolen and cotton mills employed over 40,000 persons, about half of Lawrence's population over age fourteen...Office workers averaged about $8.76 for a full week's work. In addition, the cost of living was higher in Lawrence than elsewhere in New England. Rents, paid on a weekly basis, ranged from $1.00 to $6.00 a week for small tenement apartments in frame buildings which the Neil Report found "extra hazardous" in construction and potential firetraps. Congestion was worse in Lawrence than in any other city in New England; mill families in 58 percent of the homes visited by federal investigators found it necessary to take in boarders to raise enough money for rent...Of the 22,000 textile workers investigated by Labor Commissioner Neil, well over half were women and children who found it financially imperative to work in the mills. Half of all the workers in the four Lawrence mills of the American Woolen Company were girls between ages fourteen and eighteen. Dr. Elizabeth Shapleigh, a Lawrence physician, wrote: "A considerable number of the boys and girls die within the first two or three years after beginning work . . . thirty-six out of every 100 of all the men and women who work in the mill die before or by the time they are twenty-five years of age. Because of malnutrition, work strain, and occupational diseases, the average mill worker's life in Lawrence was over twenty-two years shorter than that of the manufacturer, stated Dr. Shapleigh...  Early in January 1912 I.W.W. activities focused on a dramatic ten-week strike of 25,000 textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts. It became the most widely publicized I.W.W. conflict, acquainting the nation with the plight of the unskilled, foreign-born worker as well as with the organization's philosophy of radical unionism. 
(Joyce Kornbluh, Lucy Parsons Project Bread and Roses: The 1912 Lawrence textile Strike, webpage ( roses.html : accessed June 2008); citing: Kornbluh, Joyce, Rebel Voices: An IWW Anthology, (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Publishing, 1988).)

Family stories say that Vernetta was not able to continue her education after graduation from the Emily G. Wetherby School in 1906 at age 14, and was obliged to go directly to work in the woolen mills. If she did, it was only for a short while. And she was very lucky to have survived, given the above-cited statistics!

The 1910 census tells us that by the age of 18, she had moved up to a position of bookkeeper in a grocery store, so we know that she was out of the horrible working conditions of the mills, and would have only witnessed, not participated in, the momentous Bread and Roses strike of 1912. The advantages of speaking English and looking like a Yankee, plus her own intelligence and drive, must have helped her tremendously. When her wedding was announced in 1913, she was described as “a popular operator at the local telephone exchange,” a job that she enjoyed. A story has been passed down in the family about her eavesdropping on a steamy conversation, and giving herself away by letting out a heartfelt sigh. This was risky behavior for a telephone operator!

I always attribute any brains in our family to my grandmother Vernetta. She surrounded herself with books, was very involved in the community and didn't give a hoot about housekeeping (she left that to my poor mother, eldest child!) Best of all, Grandma was a genealogist and passed the passion down to my mother, my aunt and me.

Imagine all of the lives wasted in those mills! I consider myself lucky to be alive when I read about the evil conditions there and I thank my grandmother for understanding that it was her continuing self-education that kept her out of them.

14 October 2009

Wordless Wednesday - Little Boy Fancy, IMB II

Israel Merritt Barnes II
11 September 1861- 16 July 1920

Is this really before and after his first haircut, or are those lovely curls a studio prop??

12 October 2009

Capt. Levi's Unfortunate Love Life

Capt. Levi spent most of his time living in towns that no longer exist. They have been decommissioned, the land taken in order to create Quabbin Reservoir in Central Massachusetts. It is the largest man-made body of water used exclusively for drinking water in the world, apparently. It was created in the 1930s in a massive, Big-Dig type engineering feat which razed four towns, dammed a few rivers and voila! drinking water for Metropolitan Boston forever. They took down every single building and tree in the area. They disinterred and then reinterred every body in every cemetery. It was quite a wild few years and there have been couple of interesting books written on the subject. There is even an ever-dwindling group of folks who lived in those towns that get together for coffee every month to reminisce.

Capt. Levi was born in Eastham, on Cape Cod in 1785. He moved to this area with his wife, Betsey, somewhere between 1811 and 1815. Betsey was his first wife, but not apparently his first love. A marriage intention was published for him and another woman in 1807. She married someone else a few months later, so I can only assume that Levi was ditched! Maybe he was at sea too much and she got bored.

Levi and Betsey married in Eastham in 1809. Soon thereafter, land records show a spurt of activity when Levi purchased land in Dana (Worcester County) and Enfield (Franklin County). By 1815 the good Captain and his not-so-good wife had moved to Dana. It seems an odd place for a sea captain to set up housekeeping. Very odd, and it set off warning bells when I first learned of his residence so far inland, especially since I knew he was still actively sailing. Was he perhaps worried about the War of 1812, trying to keep his family far from any potential danger? Or was he trying to get away from everyone he knew because he discovered his wife was a wild woman? 

I had been searching for birth records for Levi and Betsey's children and found nothing, so I ended up writing a genealogy proof argument for the birth their son Franklin in Phase One of my report to the client. Levi was married again in 1822 to a lady named Palace, so I assumed that Betsey had passed away. I didn't find her death, but I didn't find much at all in Dana/Enfield at that time so I didn't think much of it.

Divorce was very rare in the early 18th century, so I was thrilled to find out that Betsey hadn't died, they had been divorced! Anyone who reads my Facebook page will remember the scandalous behavior of Levi's wife that I posted about a month ago. In 1815-1816, poor Levi was at sea for eleven months on a "voige." Six months after he returned from the coast of Africa, Betsey was "taken to bed with a son." Levi gets various people to testify as to her dastardly behavior (and with young children in the house). Betsey failed to show up for court appearances and in 1820 they were divorced.

Here is a little transcription of some of what Betsey was up to. The most alarming page is in terrible condition and I can't read it, especially at the critical point, but I'll show you what I could pick out.

said Libellant avers

that he has faithfully performed towards the said Betsey, all the

duties on his part, by the marriage covenant enjoined. And said

Libellant further avers that the said Betsey, regardless of the

duties on her part by the marriage covenant enjoined, did,

on the first day of February one thousand eight hundred and

sixteen, at a place called Dana, in said County of Worcester

and at divers other times as well before as since, at said Dana

with one Chandler Wood and divers other persons to said Li=

=bellant unknown, commit the crime of Adultery. Where=

=fore said Libellant prays this Court that said bonds of matri=

=mony may be disolved.” ...

I Samuel Pike of Petersham County of

Worcester and commonwealth of Massachusetts

being of lawful age do testify and declare that

according to the best of my recolection Capt.

Levi W. XXX of Dana and county afore

said did come home from the cost of africa

about the eleventh of April in eighteen hundred

and sixteen and was gone on his voige about

eleven month and in about six month

and twenty-three days from the time that Capt.

XXX came from the cost of africa the said

XXXs wife was brought to bed with A

son. And sum time in the month of April

before mentioned when Capt. XXX was absent

Chandler Wood of Petersham came into my

[name?] and told me that if I would go with

him to his house that he would sho me

A curiosity and I went with him and on

the way to the barn Wood told me to go in

to the barn which was in plain sight of

Capt. XXX’s house and [^it] was about at noon

day and Wood told me that in A few minuits

I should see A white cloth come out of

Capt. XXX’s house and be hung up or swoung

about in sight of the barn that I was in and

Wood went to the out side of the barn in

sight of XXXs house and in about fifteen

minuits, I saw A white cloth come out

of XXXs house and was flourished about back and

forth in front of the barn that I was in for

A number of minutes...

I Joseph Giddings of Dana in the County of Worcester

of Lawful age [illegible, possibly “do testify” or “do declare?”]

and say that according to the

best of my recollection Capt. Levi W. XXX of Dana

left home in Dana where his wife was there Living and

went as I supposed a voyage to sea in the year 1815

about the first of May and returned to sd Dana the 11th

of the [April?] 1816 Mrs. XXX sometime following to that

informed me of her situation that is that she was

then in a state of pregnancy by one Chandler Wood of

which was a common opinion she wished

me not to divulge the same which I [supposed? promised?] by a

[????] in her [conduct?] she [libi] was[wished [??]

to procure a abortion of her state of corruption [s]

following I was requested to attend her in [??] [??] which

he was delivered of son which I should say was full

                           Joseph Giddings

Wow! OK, I know Levi was away a lot, but you know that's going to happen when you grow up in Eastham amongst sea captains and fishermen. Betsey was baaaaaaaaaaad! I'd like to search the court records for who got the children, etc., but alas, time...

A couple of years later, in June of 1822, Levi recovered his pride and married Palace, in Phillipston, Worcester County. By December Palace had died! I need to check back in my notes, and need way more time from client to follow all of these lines, but I believe that Palace had a son James XXX, so perhaps she died in childbirth and Levi had been dallying with her before the wedding day. Jeez! So much for Puritanical New Englanders.

In 1824 Levi married another Eastham woman, Lydia. They went on to have at least five children, the youngest of whom was born in 1837 when Levi's children by Betsey were already having children of their own, and Levi was 52. Levi and Lydia lived together in Enfield until Lydia died in 1857. Levi stayed on in his home, sharing it at the end of his life with a man named Collis, who apparently looked after him in his old age. Levi died in 1864.

When the area needed for Quabbin was razed, some houses were just destroyed, but others were dismantled and rebuilt. Capt. Levi's house actually dates from 1767, pre-Revolution, and it was moved to Amherst, where my son is now attending college! I haven't had a chance to photograph it myself yet, but here are two photos from the web, one while it was still in Enfield (they went around and photographed the towns extensively before razing) and one as it stands now.

I hope to be able to tour it someday!

10 October 2009

Capt. Levi's Voyages

The Friendship
Ship built in Salem 1792, with a sparred length of 171 feet, carrying 342 tons. Courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum
(see "Salem, Massachusetts City Guide, Maritime History 1776-1812" at

Client research has led me into the world of early nineteenth century Maritime Massachusetts and it has been a lot of fun getting familiar with it. I won't mention Capt. Levi's last name because it is being done for a client and until I present him with the info, I don't think I should publish my findings as such. But it doesn't matter anyway.

The client originally contacted me saying he had a painting in his possession that shows a ship at sea. On the back it was labelled "Brig William Gray, [the captain's name], Palermo, Sicily 1824. He wanted to know how this happened to descend to him. He knew only of a great grandmother Jennie, with the same maiden surname, but had no information on her at all. My task was to see if she was related to the captain. That was phase one. I discovered that she was the granddaughter of the captain. Her father's birth was not registered where it should have been, so I prepared a very detailed genealogical proof argument using a ton of indirect evidence. I spent most of the report talking about Jennie's father because he migrated somewhat frenetically and changed his occupation, too, making it difficult to track him. The client enjoyed my narrative report (I used it in my certification portfolio) and requested phase two, more detail on the captain.

This a poster available for sale at

Capt. Levi was born in Eastham, on Cape Cod, in Massachusetts, in 1785. His roots extend back to Mayflower and early Plymouth Colony folks. He is easily eligible to join both Mayflower Society and SAR if he chooses. The information about his earliest immigrant ancestor places him in Scituate for a while, so I'm probably his distant cousin. I find this amusing.

Levi was a master mariner and it looks to me like his father was as well. One or both are listed many times in newspaper notices of voyages to Europe, South America, the Carribbean and the Eastern seaboard from about 1793 1o 1828. His father passed away in 1811 when Levi would have been 26 years old, perfect age to take on the job of master mariner. I imagine he had been sailing with his father all during his teenage years, but cannot find any proof of that.

This is not a period of abundant records, especially for those sailing out of the port of Boston.  The country was young and agencies to regulate commerce were just getting established. The Custom House, which created and housed what records did exist, burned in the 1890s and they were lost. I looked for something similar to Lloyd's Register, but there is nothing that early for US maritime activity. There are records out there, but to find them would greatly exceed the amount of hours we contracted for. Maybe it'll be a phase three... In addition to the paucity of records, life on the high seas was wild and woolly with multiple dangers from impressment to piracy and war. With embargos and capitalism gone wild, people made up their own rules. And rule-breakers don't like to keep records.

In an undated article in American Heritage Magazine, "Portrait of a Yankee Skipper," which I found at, Archibald MacLeish tells about the life of his great grandfather, Capt. Moses Hilliard. He is lucky enough to have inherited a boatload haha of documentation from him. Capt. Hilliard was a "buyer and seller of goods of all kinds, from castor oil and cowitch through rum, coffee, and cotton to garden seeds of curious kinds and the best stockings and shawls to be purchased on the Paris market; he was a dealer in foreign exchange in a number of currencies, including, together with the Russian and the usual European varieties, the complicated coinages of the Spanish Main ...He was a sea lawyer skilled in the filling out of bills of lading in quadruplicate, one to he sworn to before consul or judge affirming United States ownership and three to be sent home, each one in a different vessel; he was a student of long-range and short-range markets in a number of Atlantic ports, a close observer of world affairs (particularly wars), a diplomat of sorts (especially at his own table), a master-rigger, a bit of a doctor, his own laborious secretary, a pleasant companion to his passengers, and a good bit of a man of the world wherever the world might be—in Demerara or New York or Paris.

According to the newspaper notices, father and/or son travelled up to 1812 or so to the following ports: Havre de Grace, France; Jamaica; Les Caves, Haiti; St. Thomas; Lisbon, Portugal; Cadiz, Spain; Montevideo, [Uruguay]; and Laguira [Venezuela]. Later voyages seemed to stick to the Eastern seaboard and included such ports as Savannah, Baltimore, New Orleans, Philadelphia, New York, Richmond and Mobile. They sailed in romantic sounding ships called schooners and brigs. The newspapers kept careful track of how many days it took them to make a trip and there was a lot of competition to make a trip as quickly as possible. This, of course, only added to the other dangers.

Here's a notice from 29 March 1804 from the Boston Gazette (thanks, I love you): “Wines, Lemons, & Salt, &c. Now landing from sch. Jane, Capt. XXX, from Cadiz, and for sale by E. W. Reynolds. No. 19, Long-Wharf –– 100 qr. casks excellent old Sherry Wine ; 50 boxes Lemons, 180 hhds [hogsheads] Salt ; 40 doz. red Morocco Skins ; a few jars excellent Olives. In Store –– 100 bbls. Bread ; a few cases half pint Tumblers, and boxes Hamburgh Window Glass ; a few boxes Dutch Toys. Also, For New York and Norfolk, the sch. Jane ; will sail in 10 days. For Freight or Passage apply as above. march 19.”

There's so much to learn about Levi that I could just study him and his trips for years! I have gotten really, really bogged down with this research because I'm a bad business person and have don't want to stop investigating. It's just too much fun. I did stop, however, a few months ago (!) and am now compiling. I'll write more about Levi in future posts.